Medical Education: Earle W. Holmes, Jr., PhD | Loyola Medicine

Earle W. Holmes, Jr., PhD



Languages Spoken


Clinical Expertise


Outdoor Activities;Trombone Playing;Antique car restoration

Medical Education

Board Certification


  • An interactive website for analytical method comparison and bias estimation Bahar, B.; Tuncel, A. F.; Holmes, E. W.; Holmes, D. T., Clinical biochemistry
  • Biotin Interference in Clinical Immunoassays: A Cause for Concern Holmes, E. W.; Samarasinghe, S.; Emanuele, M. A.; Meah, F., Archives of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine
  • Biotin Interference with Routine Clinical Immunoassays: Understand the Causes and Mitigate the Risks Samarasinghe, S.; Meah, F.; Singh, V.; Basit, A.; Emanuele, N.; Emanuele, M. A.; Mazhari, A.; Holmes, E. W., Endocrine practice : official journal of the American College of Endocrinology and the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists
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  • Analytical variability among methods for the measurement of 25-hydroxyvitamin d: still adding to the noise Holmes, E. W.; Garbincius, J.; McKenna, K. M., American Journal of Clinical Pathology
  • Chronic fluoxetine reduces autonomic control of cardiac rhythms in rats with congestive heart failure Henze, M.; Tiniakov, R.; Samarel, A.; Holmes, E.; Scrogin, K., American journal of physiology.Heart and circulatory physiology
  • The prognostic value of lymph node cross-sectional cancer area in node-positive breast cancer: a comparison with N stage and lymph node ratio Li, Y.; Holmes, E.; Shah, K.; Albuquerque, K.; Szpaderska, A.; Ersahin, C., Pathology research international
  • Non-linear analytical recovery in the DiaSorin Liaison immunoassay for 25-hydroxy vitamin D Holmes, E. W.; Garbincius, J.; McKenna, K. M., Clinica chimica acta; international journal of clinical chemistry
  • Analytic bias among certified methods for the measurement of hemoglobin A1c: a cause for concern?. Holmes, E. W.; Ersahin, C.; Augustine, G. J.; Charnogursky, G. A.; Gryzbac, M.; Murrell, J. V.; McKenna, K. M.; Nabhan, F.; Kahn, S. E., American Journal of Clinical Pathology
  • Identification of patients with low-risk for aneuploidy: comparative discriminatory models using linear and machine-learning classifiers in prostate cancer. Venkataraman, G.; Heinze, G.; Holmes, E. W.; Ananthanarayanan, V.; Bostwick, D. G.; Paner, G. P.; Bradford-De La garza, C. M.; Brown, H. G.; Flanigan, R. C.; Wojcik, E. M., Prostate
  • Determination of ultrafilterable prolactin: elimination of macroprolactin interference with a monomeric prolactin-selective sample pretreatment. Quinn, A. M.; Rubinas, T. C.; Garbincius, C. J.; Holmes, E. W., Archives of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine
  • Gas chromatographic method for detection of urinary sucralose: application to the assessment of intestinal permeability Farhadi, A.; Keshavarzian, A.; Holmes, E. W.; Fields, J.; Zhang, L.; Banan, A., Journal of chromatography.B, Analytical technologies in the biomedical and life sciences
  • Circadian rhythm of serum total homocysteine in men. Bremner, W. F.; Holmes, E. W.; Kanabrocki, E. L.; Hermida, R. C.; Ayala, D.; Garbincius, J.; Third, J. L.; Ryan, M. D.; Johnson, M.; Foley, S.; Shirazi, P.; Nemchausky, B. A.; Scheving, L. E., American Journal of Cardiology

The biologic activities of melanin

For the past eight years, my research has been focused on the investigation of the biological activities of melanin. This work began when a virologist colleague and I found that phytomelanins accounted for the majority of the anti-HSV activity that was present in extracts of the medicinal plant, Echinacea purpurea. We found that phytomelanins inhibited infections by HIV, HSV-1, HSV-2, CMV, EBV, Influenza A virus, and Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis, in vitro, and that they were effective intra-vaginal microbicides that prevented HSV-2 infections in mice and Guinea pigs in vivo. We showed that a major mechanism of action of the Echinacea-derived melanin was via inhibition of the attachment and fusion of viruses to the cell membranes of a potential host.